Kazakhstan in the System of Migratory Interaction of Central Asian Countries
Yelena Zimovina, Buketov Karaganda State University, Kazakhstan
Central Asia is the specific region due to the nature of some social demography and migration processes. Notwithstanding the fact that there are a lot of commonwealth characteristics, every country can be considered as a unique demographic model. On the one hand, each of these models produces migration flows; and, on the other hand, under the influence of migration theirs undergoes a change by itself. As for the current developments the main migration problems for the countries of Central Asia are ecological migration, illegal labour migration, emigration of qualified scientists (so-called ‘brain drain’). Alongside with these there is the active process of repatriation among representatives of indigenous nations in Central Asian countries. During the last years some problems are taking on special significance; they are intensive internal migration throughout the vector ‘village-city’. Heretofore, in some migration legislations of Central Asia Countries the questions, concerning refugees and displaced persons are not regulated completely and some ethnic groups are prevented from getting this status at all. Nevertheless Central Asian region is the territory of active migration exchange between neighboring states. On the one hand, it is promoted by some political, social and economic processes. On the other hand, this is the way for forming life conditions and everyday occurrences of some individual families and people. Among other countries of Central Asia Kazakhstan quickly follows the course of demographical modernization. According to the main demographic indices the republic is out of tune with of the Central Asia region: the birth rates and infant mortality rates are the lowest here, the rates of mortality are the highest, migration level is the most considerable. During the last two decades migration processes in Central Asian region modified and occasionally demonstrated rather original developing processes against a background of each of the countries.
Presented in Poster Session 2